Дидактические материалы "Краеведение. Александров"
Материал из Vladimir
FROM HISTORY OF ALEXANDROV SLOBODA
Picture "Monastery of Alexandrov". Painter S.Andriyako
12th century. First mention in the chronicle of the village of Alexandrovo located on the area abound in poultry and animals. Hunting lands of Pereslavl, later - of the princes of Zvenigorod.
1302. Village is handed over to the princes of Moscow.
1513. Arrival of Great Duke Vasily III. Construction of a palace and the wooden Intercession Church.
1513. Foundation of the town.
1565. The Alexandrova settlement becomes a permanent residence of Ivan the Terrible and the capital of the oprichnina state.
1582. Ivan the Terrible kills his son Ivan. After the son's death the tsar leaves the settlement. Gradual devastation and downfall.
18th century. In the Alexandrova settlement troops of M.V.Skopin-Shuysky gather to support defenders of the Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius during the Polish-Lithuanian intervention. Palace buildings are destroyed.
1651. Arrival of Tsar Alexey Mikhailovitch. Decree on the foundation of a convent.
1654. The Assumption convent is opened, the place of exile of Peter's daughter, the future Empress Elizabeth.
1778. Renaming of the Alexandrova settlement into the town of Alexandrov. Coat of arms is adopted.
1812. Forming of a gorilla fighters detachment under the peasant Gerasim Kurin in the region of Kirzhach. The detachment annihilated two French squadrons and captured a large wagon train.
1876. Opening of a teachers' training seminary.
1905. Establishment of Councils of Workers' Deputies.
1917 (November). Establishment of the Soviet Government.
1921. Alexandrov receives a status of museum.
1932. Alexandrovo's radio plant is founded.
1944. Foundation of the Vladimir region with Alexandrov as its part.
1975 (October). Opening of the memorial plate in honor of the first pilot-cosmonaut Y.A. Gagarin and pilot-tester V.S. Seregin perished in the air crush by the village of Novoselovo of the Kirzhach district.
Museum - preserve is situated on the territory of Alexandrov Kremlin, which is the oldest country governmental residence of Moscow sovereigns. It is known in the history as outstanding Alexandrovskaya Sloboda and oprichnaya capital of Ivan the Terrible. But its fate was defined by tsar Ivan IV father - Vasilij III, who was a grand duke of Moscow. After his order the best Russian and Italian masters, who constructed Moscow Kremlin, established in Sloboda a splendid palace. Beginning December 11, 1513, Alexandrovskaya Sloboda was a place of permanent staying there of Tsar, his family and the Court. There was a special role of Alexandrovskaya Sloboda during a very cruel struggle for power in the second part of XVI -th century. Tsar Ivan the Terrible transferred it into real capital of the state where he completed the amalgamation of the country. In accordance with Ivan the Terrible wish Sloboda became the biggest cultural center of Russian state. Monuments of Alexandrovskaya Sloboda are uncommonly good kept ancient Russian palace and temple ensemble. Ancient monuments of the ensemble refer t to the period of great princely construction of the XVI -th century. It was a time of great changes in the life of Russian state. A spirit of that century, epoch of autocracy establishment and strengthening f Russian power, was reflected in architecture of tsar fortress - in Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. Russian and Italian architects took part in the construction of the ensemble. Up to the present moment the fortress kept its design of front part and main constructions of "Royal castle". Fund collections of the museum were formed during 80 years. They reflect a deep, original history and culture of Alexandrovskaya Sloboda of Middle Ages period as a political, and cultural centre Russia of the XVI-th century. They also show a development of Russian province of the XIX -th century. Collections, dates back to the XX-th century, tell about the most important accidents of the century, reflected in the life of Russian town.
"Tsar court in Alexandrovskaya Sloboda" Exposition shows step by step a transfer of court in the capital of oprichnina and Russian state. Exposition, opened in white stone palace of the XVII-th century, shows representatives of ruling dynasty of Rurikovitches and Romanovs, lived or visited tsar sloboda, which labor and care supported a status of Alexandrova Sloboda as a tsar patrimony during some centuries. "Pokrovskaya church - is a house temple of tsar palace" It is possible to see here a unique plot painting of hipped roof. Content of frescoes was probably defined by Ivan the Terrible. A main proud of the exhibition is a white stone, fretted portal. Made at the end of the XVI-th century, probably by Italian masters and reconstructed in our days. "Tsar Ivan the Terrible in painting" A chamber exhibition of paintings from the collection of the museum is situated in palace of the beginning of the XVI-th century, which had been, probably, "money storage" of tsar court. The exhibition reflects impressions of painters of different periods (from XVII century up to our days) of one of the most outstanding Russian tsars. A gallery is very different: Ivan the Wise, Ivan the Imperious, Ivan the Terrible. On the exhibition there is Ivan the Terrible in paintings from a collection of the museum "Alexandrovskaya Sloboda". "Hay-mattress" White stone palace building of the beginning of the XVI -th century. In the XVI-th century there were wedding ceremonies of Russian Monarch Ivan the Terrible. Court wedding ceremonies needed a special building which was used for the first marriage night of tsar persons. Decoration of the building is penetrated with the spirit of Christian symbolism and Russian Heathen traditions. A marriage of Ivan the Terrible showed a political status of Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. "Treasures of three centuries" One of the popular artistic exhibitions. A light, high interior of Uspenskaya Church, low music and a wonderful collection of monuments of middle ages art (manuscripts, old printed books, icons, decorative and applied art, textiles, sewing) are very impressive. "Customs of our old times" Exhibition gives a possibility to be in the provincial town of 19-th century, to look at the flat of any solvent petty bourgeois. Reconstructed interior of the flat, real subjects of that time: cloths, furniture, dishes shows a life of citizens.
There are a lot of interesting programs in the museum. The most popular are:
1. "Samovar is boiling - asks to stay". A tasteful tea and cakes will be suggested during the exhibition "Traditions of our old years". Tea ceremony in Russia.
2. "Match-making" - we suggest you to be a participant of this original musical program about traditions, customs and life of peasants of XIX century.
3. "Visit" - Possibility to know different curt manners of last centuries, theatre improvisations with participation of guests.
4. "Tsar kvass" - cooking of different traditional drinks in Russia in XVI century.
Alexandrov (Александров) is a town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, km to mi|120 north-east of Moscow. Population: ru-census|p2002=64,824|p1989=68220 The town of Alexandrov served as the capital of Russia for three months (December 1564 to February 1565) under Tsar Ivan the Terrible until he agreed to return his court and the relics of Moscow which he had taken with him. Ivan agreed to return after the church gave him permission to found the Oprichnina. Alexandrov is a town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, 120 km northeast of Moscow. The town of Aleksandrov served as Russia’s capital for 3 months when Ivan the Terrible was Tsar. The city came under the control of the Muscovite princes in 1302. The city is also the site of the first printing establishment in Russia, founded during the reign of Ivan IV, and of the famous Uspenski convent (late 17th century).
Coat of Arms"At the top are depicted the arms of Vladimir, at the bottom a metalworker's vice on a red field is drawn up, flanked by two anvils to signify that "in this town quite a lot of metalwork is done".
Crucifixion church-belltower in Alexandrov
The Crucifixion Church-Belfry (1570), a majestic edifice with a tent roof typical of the temple "under the bell" type, is a splendid monument of tent-roof architecture. A 56 meter-high belfry was used as a watch tower. With this purpose a watch gallery was contrived with the arches through which one could have a distant view of the suburbs. The belfry was erected in honor of the arrival of Ivan the Terrible to Alexandrova settlement. The contemporaries said that Ivan, his son, and Maliuta Skuratov rang the bells themselves calling oprichniks to attend the public service. To make the sound resonant special holes were made in the foundation of the tent roof.
Trinity Cathedral in Alexandrov
The Trinity Cathedral of 1513 is the only construction remained from the palace edifices of Vasily III, father of Ivan the Great. In the 17th century the Intercession Cathedral was re-sanctified into the Trinity Cathedral. The Trinity Cathedral resembles the house of worship of the same name in the Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, but looks more massive and bulky. The main sight of the cathedral, the Trinity Gate, was executed in the mid-14th century by the commission of the Tver bishop and brought in to the area as a trophy from the predatory raids of Ivan the Terrible to Tver. The gate was composed of several plates, one bearing a marvelous engraving of the Trinity contrived by an anonymous Tver master-craftsman. The Vasilievskiye Gate on the southern side of the temple was imported by the tsar to embellish his favorite settlement from the Temple of Sophia of Nivgorod after the defeat of that freedom-loving town. The inscription on the gate notes that it was crafted in 1336 by the order of the Novgorodian archbishop Vasily. That is where its name derives from. One of the images of the gate portrays the archbishop. The Vasilievskiye Gate is a unique piece of art. The master-craftsmen inscribed 28 images on copper sheets which had been covered with a special varnish and fire treated to get a black nielloed background over which a gilded picture was laid. The wedding of Ivan the Terrible and Marpha Sobakina took place in this cathedral. Divine singers with a peculiar "famous type of singing" sang in the Trinity Cathedral and the precentor was the tsar himself. The Trinity Cathedral involuntary became a memorial to a sinister period of the Russian history: oprichnina (special administrative elite under Tsar Ivan the Terrible), executions, murders and blood.
Intercession Church in Alexandrov
The private house of worship of Ivan the Terrible, The Intercession Church (1570 - 1571), was executed after the tsar's successful raids to Kazan, Novgorod and Pskov and became a distinctive memorial to the military glory and terror. Its architectural type goes back to a parish church: the house of worship (the Intercession Church, in this case), a two-storied refectory and a tent-roofed belfry built in the 17th century are lined up. The overall complex is integral and picturesque. The Intercession Church is a part of the palace of Ivan the Terrible. Evidently, the decor of the royal residence was distinguished and gorgeous. In this edifice Ivan the Terrible granted audiences to foreign envoys. Considering himself a successor of the Byzantine emperors the tsar kept vigilant watch on maintaining his authority. Living in magnificent rooms, Ivan the Terrible and his oprichniks followed the monastery charter and strictly observed all the rules. They wore black monastic garments hiding gilded caftans and sharp knives underneath. The semblance of piety could not shatter the people's rumors going around the settlement. In 1582 in his palace Ivan the Terrible killed his son, the heir to the throne, and drowned his wife Maria Dolgorukaya in a river the next day after the wedding. For fun the tsar and oprichniks made disgraced monks and archimandrites, armed but with a cross, go into a single combat with a bear. A peculiar fact is known: in 1565 the boyar's bond Nikita Kryakutny flied down with hand-made wings. The tsar did not ignore this event and issued a decree stating: "A man is not a bird and should not have wings. If someone wears any wooden wings, which is unnatural, his head will be cut off for the collaboration with evil spirit, the body of this damned stinking dog will be thrown for pigs to be eaten and his invention is to be burnt on fire after a holy liturgy". All that is left from the palace of "the Blood Sucking Town" are two white-stone rooms with a staircase on the ground floor of the Intercession Church and a refectory.
Intercession Church frescos
On the sides of the tent-shaped roof of the Intercession Church there is the unique well preserved fresco painting which was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible himself.
The painting strikes by perfection of fine line, by laconic artistic language, unordinary choice of depicted saints. The first Russian Tsar Ivan IV spent long hours in this church praying and thinking about the fate of his state
Alexandrov Assumption Church
The Assumption church was built in the XVI-XVII centuries. It was the home church of the Great Princess. It is a small church of delicate proportions, standing on a high white-stone ground floor, under which there are well preserved vast cellars - safe treasure depositories of the Moscow Princes Vasili III and Ivan IV.
There is a legend which says that in the XVI century these cellars were used as the beginning of a secret underground passageway "Tsar tube". It was possible to leave the Tsar Residence trough the "tube" by three horses gear without obstacles.
Church of Sretenija Gospodnja
The Church of Sretenija Gospodnja was built in 1680. It is a small temple at monastic sick-lists chambers. There is a crypt with tombs of Peter's I sisters Marfa and Feodosiya in the cellars of the church.
The exposition "Treasures of three centuries" is situated in the Assumption Church. It will help you to estimate the beauty and to see the rarities of Russian art of the XVII-XIX centuries. Manuscripts and printed books, precious fabrics, rare original examples of icon painting and embroidery leave unforgettable impression.
Alexandrova Sloboda really combines organically both atmosphere of Ivan the Terrible epoch and traditions of following centuries. A light, high interior of the Assumption Church, low music and a wonderful collection of monuments of Middle Ages art (manuscripts, old printed books, icons, decorative and applied art, textiles, sewing) are very impressive.
Nadcladeznaya Chapel was built in the XVIII century. It is a small octahedral construction under a dome-shaped roof above a well. It belongs to the museum.
Alexandrov - Church of Feodor Stratilat The Church of Feodor Stratilat was built in 1682. It is a small temple above the Sacred gate of the monastery. It was built with support of Tsar Feodor Alekseevich.
Alexandrov - Watchtower
In the XVII century on a place of ancient powerful fortifications were erected new - with four angular towers and Feodor Stratilat's church.